Difference between revisions of "OOP Class3"

esse quam videri
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[[Category:OOP]]
+
[[Category:IAM Classes]]
  
 +
==Conversion Casting==
 +
Casting is the process of converting form one type of object to another, There are two Conversion types in C# implicit and explicit. Implicit conversion is handled by the compiler and requires no extra work. Implicit conversion is only possible if the new data type can hold the old data type with out any data loss. explicit conversion forces on datatype into another even if it doesn't fit. It is up to the programmer to define explicit casts.
 +
 +
===implicit conversion===
 +
 +
<syntaxhighlight lang="csharp" >int intNumber = 1000;
 +
long lngNumber;
 +
lngNumber  = intNumber;
 +
       
 +
int Number1= 6;
 +
int Number2= 5;
 +
int Number3 = Number1 / Number2;
 +
//Number3 == 1 NOT  1.2 because Number3 is an int
 +
</syntaxhighlight>
 +
 +
[http://iam.colum.edu/oop/gbrowser.php?file=/classsource/class2/implicitConversion.cs implicitConversion.cs]
 +
 +
===explicit conversion===
 +
 +
<syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">long lngNumber = 1000;
 +
int intNumber;
 +
intNumber = (int)lngNumber;
 +
 +
int Number1= 6;
 +
int Number2= 5;
 +
double Number3 = (double)Number1 / (double)Number2;
 +
//Number3 == 1.2</syntaxhighlight>
 +
 +
[http://iam.colum.edu/poop/gbrowser.php?file=/classsource/class2/explicitConversion.cs explicitConversion.cs]
 +
 +
Some types cannot be cast from one type to another but the Framework has it's ows Conversion Class.
 +
[http://iam.colum.edu/quickstart/util/classbrowser.aspx?assembly=mscorlib,%20Version=2.0.0.0,%20Culture=neutral,%20PublicKeyToken=b77a5c561934e089&namespace=System&class=Convert Convert ]
 +
 +
[http://iam.colum.edu/poop/gbrowser.php?file=/classsource/class2/ConvertClass.cs ConvertClass.cs] and Emample of using the convert class to convert an interger to a boolean
  
 
=Operators=
 
=Operators=
Line 9: Line 43:
 
The Assigment operator in c# is the '=' sign. You can assign variables like this...
 
The Assigment operator in c# is the '=' sign. You can assign variables like this...
  
<csharp>int myVar; //declare varible of type int called myVar
+
<syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">int myVar; //declare varible of type int called myVar
myVar = 15;  //assign myVar the value of 15 using the '=' sign</csharp>
+
myVar = 15;  //assign myVar the value of 15 using the '=' sign</syntaxhighlight>
  
 
==Comparison Operators==
 
==Comparison Operators==
Line 26: Line 60:
 
|>= ||Greater than or equal to
 
|>= ||Greater than or equal to
 
|-  
 
|-  
|!= ||Ineqaulity
+
|!= ||Inequality
 
|}
 
|}
  
Line 39: Line 73:
 
|! || Logical NOT
 
|! || Logical NOT
 
|}
 
|}
 +
 +
==Boolean Expressions==
 +
Logical operators usually work on bollean expressions. Boolean expressions are is a statement that evaluates to true of false
 +
 +
(1 < 2)
 +
or
 +
(y == x)
 +
 +
Boolean expressions are often grouped with logical operator to combine comparisons
 +
 +
(x > 0) && (x <100) //x is greater than 0 and less than 100
 +
 +
(x < 0) || (x >100) //x is less than zero or x is greater than 100
  
 
==Logical operator Precedence==
 
==Logical operator Precedence==
Line 63: Line 110:
 
syntax
 
syntax
  
<csharp>if (expression)
+
<syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">if (expression)
 
     // statement
 
     // statement
 
      
 
      
Line 76: Line 123:
 
else {
 
else {
 
     // statements
 
     // statements
}</csharp>
+
}</syntaxhighlight>
  
  
Line 94: Line 141:
 
if example [http://iam.colum.edu/oop/gbrowser.php?file=/classsource/class3/IfSelection.cs IfSelection.cs - source]
 
if example [http://iam.colum.edu/oop/gbrowser.php?file=/classsource/class3/IfSelection.cs IfSelection.cs - source]
  
The following code uses a bunch of operator and if staments to do some basic sanity checks. Analye it and try to predict the output<br>
+
The following code uses a bunch of operator and if statements to do some basic sanity checks. Analyze it and try to predict the output<br>
 
sanityCheck.cs - source
 
sanityCheck.cs - source
  
Line 111: Line 158:
 
example 1
 
example 1
  
<csharp>// switch with integer type
+
<syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">// switch with integer type
 
switch (myInt)
 
switch (myInt)
 
{
 
{
Line 126: Line 173:
 
             Console.WriteLine("Your number {0} is not between 1 and 3.", myInt);
 
             Console.WriteLine("Your number {0} is not between 1 and 3.", myInt);
 
             break;
 
             break;
}</csharp>
+
}</syntaxhighlight>
  
 
[http://iam.colum.edu/oop/gbrowser.php?file=/classsource/class3/Switch1to3.cs Switch1to3.cs]<br />
 
[http://iam.colum.edu/oop/gbrowser.php?file=/classsource/class3/Switch1to3.cs Switch1to3.cs]<br />
Line 133: Line 180:
 
fall though and goto case
 
fall though and goto case
  
<csharp>// fall though and goto case
+
<syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">// fall though and goto case
 
switch (myChoice)
 
switch (myChoice)
 
{
 
{
Line 149: Line 196:
 
             Console.WriteLine("Please vote....");
 
             Console.WriteLine("Please vote....");
 
             break;
 
             break;
}</csharp>
+
}</syntaxhighlight>
  
 
[http://iam.colum.edu/oop/gbrowser.php?file=/classsource/class3/SwitchPolitics.cs SwitchPolitics.cs]<br />
 
[http://iam.colum.edu/oop/gbrowser.php?file=/classsource/class3/SwitchPolitics.cs SwitchPolitics.cs]<br />
Line 160: Line 207:
 
      
 
      
  
<csharp>for (int i=0; i < 10; i++)
+
<syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">for (int i=0; i < 10; i++)
 
{
 
{
 
     forOneResult += "For Loop " + i + "<br />";
 
     forOneResult += "For Loop " + i + "<br />";
}</csharp>
+
}</syntaxhighlight>
  
 
Produces
 
Produces
Line 178: Line 225:
 
For Loop 9
 
For Loop 9
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
<csharp>for (int i=0; i < 20; i++)
+
<syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">for (int i=0; i < 20; i++)
 
{
 
{
 
     if (i == 10)
 
     if (i == 10)
Line 187: Line 234:
  
 
     forTwoResult += "For Loop " + i + "<br />";
 
     forTwoResult += "For Loop " + i + "<br />";
}</csharp>
+
}</syntaxhighlight>
  
 
Produces
 
Produces
Line 207: Line 254:
 
   while (expression) statement
 
   while (expression) statement
  
<csharp>string whileLoopResult = "";
+
<syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">string whileLoopResult = "";
int myInt = 0;
+
int MyInt = 0;
  
while (Myint < 10)
+
while (MyInt < 10)
 
{
 
{
     Whileloopresult +="While Loop " + Myint + "\n";
+
     Whileloopresult +="While Loop " + MyInt + "\n";
     Myint++;
+
     MyInt++;
}</csharp>
+
}</syntaxhighlight>
  
 
produces
 
produces
Line 236: Line 283:
 
      
 
      
  
<csharp>string doLoopResult = "";
+
<syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">string doLoopResult = "";
 
int myIntDo = 0;
 
int myIntDo = 0;
  
 
do
 
do
 
{
 
{
     doLoopResult +="do Loop " + myIntDo + "<br />";
+
     doLoopResult +="do Loop " + myIntDo + "\n";
 
     myIntDo++;
 
     myIntDo++;
}      while (myIntDo < 10);</csharp>
+
}      while (myIntDo < 10);</syntaxhighlight>
  
 
produces
 
produces
Line 260: Line 307:
  
  
<csharp>string doLoopResult2 = "";
+
<syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">string doLoopResult2 = "";
 
int myIntDo2 = 30;
 
int myIntDo2 = 30;
  
 
do
 
do
 
{
 
{
         doLoopResult2 +="do Loop " + myInt + "<br />";
+
         doLoopResult2 +="do Loop " + myInt + "\n";
 
         myIntDo2++;
 
         myIntDo2++;
} while (myIntDo2 < 10);</csharp>
+
} while (myIntDo2 < 10);</syntaxhighlight>
  
 
produces
 
produces
Line 273: Line 320:
  
 
==for each==
 
==for each==
A for ewach loop requires and iterator.. more on this iterator thing later...
+
A for each loop requires and iterator.. more on this iterator thing later...
  
<csharp>string[] names = {"Cheryl", "Joe", "Matt", "Robert"};
+
<syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">string[] names = {"Cheryl", "Joe", "Matt", "Robert"};
 
foreach (string person in names)
 
foreach (string person in names)
 
{
 
{
 
     Console.Write (" " + person);
 
     Console.Write (" " + person);
}</csharp>
+
}</syntaxhighlight>
  
 
produces<br>
 
produces<br>
Cheryl Joe Matt Robert
+
 
 +
<pre>
 +
Cheryl Joe Matt Robert
 +
</pre>
  
 
[http://iam.colum.edu/poop/gbrowser.php?file=/classsource/class3/ForEachLoop.cs ForEachLoop.cs - source]
 
[http://iam.colum.edu/poop/gbrowser.php?file=/classsource/class3/ForEachLoop.cs ForEachLoop.cs - source]
  
The for each loop is a key component in polymorphism Remeber the age selector example what if we want to select more than one age. It would be simple to change the dropdownlist into a listboc and turn SelectionMode ="Multiple" so the user can select multiple items but how do check to see if every Item is selected. Is to have each item check itself and use a for each loop.
+
The for each loop is a key component in polymorphism. Remember the age selector example what if we want to select more than one age. It would be simple to change the dropdownlist into a listbox and turn SelectionMode ="Multiple" so the user can select multiple items but how do check to see if every Item is selected. Is to have each item check itself and use a for each loop.
/infod/jeff/classSource/class3/DynamicAddListBoxPoly.aspx - source
+
 
 +
==Generics==
  
<!--How about making those checkboxes?
+
*List
/infod/jeff/classSource/class3/DynamicAddCheckBoxPoly.aspx - source
+
*Queue
 +
*Stack
 +
*.etc
  
Make em horzontal and only 10 long
+
==IN Class==
/infod/jeff/classSource/class3/DynamicAddCheckBoxPolyHoriz.aspx - source
+
 
-->
+
Build a c# app that writes the words to 99 bottles of beer on the wall using a loopin statement
 +
[[99 bottles of beer csharp example]]
  
 
==Try and Catch==
 
==Try and Catch==
  
<csharp>try
+
Try and catch is useful when you are going to do something that may cause a runtime error. These arrroe my occur when
 +
 
 +
*Parsing user input
 +
*Converting Datatypes
 +
*Trying to connect to a remote server
 +
*Connecting to a database
 +
 
 +
For example consider a program that asks the user what their favorite number is.
 +
 
 +
<syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">
 +
using System;
 +
using System.Collections.Generic;
 +
using System.Text;
 +
 
 +
namespace FavoriteNumber
 +
{
 +
    class Program
 +
    {
 +
        static void Main(string[] args)
 +
        {
 +
            int intFavNumber;
 +
            string strFavNumber;
 +
           
 +
            Console.Write("What is you favorite number?");
 +
            strFavNumber = Console.ReadLine();
 +
 
 +
            intFavNumber = Int16.Parse(strFavNumber);
 +
 
 +
        }
 +
    }
 +
}
 +
</syntaxhighlight>
 +
 
 +
if you type 'monkey' for your favorite number the program crashes with the folling message
 +
<pre>
 +
 
 +
Unhandled Exception: System.FormatException: Input string was not in a correct format.
 +
  at System.Number.StringToNumber(String str, NumberStyles options, NumberBuffer& number, NumberFormatInfo info, Boolea
 +
n parseDecimal)
 +
  at System.Number.ParseInt32(String s, NumberStyles style, NumberFormatInfo info)
 +
  at System.Int16.Parse(String s, NumberStyles style, NumberFormatInfo info)
 +
  at FavoriteNumber.Program.Main(String[] args)
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
This program can be fixed be using a try and catch
 +
 
 +
<syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">try
 
{
 
{
 
//some crazy code that may cause errors
 
//some crazy code that may cause errors
Line 305: Line 405:
 
{
 
{
 
     string FstrError = e.ToString();
 
     string FstrError = e.ToString();
}</csharp>
+
}</syntaxhighlight>
 
 
  
Asp.Net Example
+
 
/infod/jeff/classSource/class3/tryAndCatch.aspx -
 
 
Console Example
 
Console Example
 +
http://iam.colum.edu/oop/gbrowser.php?file=/classsource/class3/try.cs
  
<csharp>using System;
+
<syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">using System;
 
namespace HelloClass
 
namespace HelloClass
 
{
 
{
Line 333: Line 433:
 
         }
 
         }
 
     }
 
     }
}</csharp>
+
}</syntaxhighlight>
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
 
C:\User\csharp>csc try.cs
 
C:\User\csharp>csc try.cs
Line 349: Line 449:
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
 
/infod/jeff/classSource/class2/try.cs - source
 
/infod/jeff/classSource/class2/try.cs - source
 +
 +
{{Csharp string functions}}
  
 
==Functions/Methods==
 
==Functions/Methods==
Line 370: Line 472:
 
Defining
 
Defining
  
<csharp>string Hello ()
+
<syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">string Hello ()
 
{
 
{
 
     return "Hello ";
 
     return "Hello ";
Line 378: Line 480:
 
{
 
{
 
     return "Hello " + Name;
 
     return "Hello " + Name;
}</csharp>
+
}</syntaxhighlight>
  
 
Calling a finction in c#
 
Calling a finction in c#
  
<csharp>string firstHello, jeffHello;  //declare some strings
+
<syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">string firstHello, jeffHello;  //declare some strings
 
firstHello = Hello();  //call the function Hello
 
firstHello = Hello();  //call the function Hello
 
jeffHello = HelloToName("Jeff");  //call the function HelloToName
 
jeffHello = HelloToName("Jeff");  //call the function HelloToName
</csharp>
+
</syntaxhighlight>
  
 
Console Example
 
Console Example
Line 407: Line 509:
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
Asp.Net example
+
[http://iam.colum.edu/oop/gbrowser.php?file=/classsource/class3/function.cs function.cs]
/infod/jeff/7345ch01-ch10/Ch06/function.aspx - source
 
  
 
Passing variable into a function/method passes be instance. Variables passed by instance do not actually pass in the original variable rather a copy or new instance of the variable is passed. It you want to pass in the actual variable you need to pass be referance
 
Passing variable into a function/method passes be instance. Variables passed by instance do not actually pass in the original variable rather a copy or new instance of the variable is passed. It you want to pass in the actual variable you need to pass be referance
Line 414: Line 515:
 
/infod/jeff/classSource/class3/instanceReference.aspx - Source
 
/infod/jeff/classSource/class3/instanceReference.aspx - Source
  
==Out Parameters==
 
 
Functions can only return a single value. Out parametrs allow functions to return more than one value. They don't really retun multiple values it's more like passing varibles thought the function by refernce
 
 
<csharp>using System;
 
public class Test
 
{
 
public static void Main()
 
{
 
Test t=new Test();
 
t.Run();
 
}
 
public void Run()
 
{
 
Test t=new Test();
 
int Hour = 0;
 
t.GetTime(out Hour);
 
Console.WriteLine (Hour);
 
}
 
public void GetTime ( out int h )
 
{
 
h = 10;
 
}
 
}</csharp>
 
 
produces
 
<pre>
 
10
 
</pre>
 
 
==Variables==
 
==Variables==
 
===Scope===
 
===Scope===
Line 450: Line 522:
  
 
Variables declared with functions/methods are only around as long as the function/method is running. These variables are known as local varables
 
Variables declared with functions/methods are only around as long as the function/method is running. These variables are known as local varables
Global Variables
+
===Global Variables===
 +
 
 +
Global variables are variables that are around for the entire length of execution. They are declared a public within the programs base class.<br />
 +
In c# since everything must be contianed in a class global variables do not really exist.
 +
 
 +
===Block Level Variables===
 +
 
 +
Block level variables exitist with the code block.<br />
 +
A code block is contained by { }.
 +
 
 +
[http://iam.colum.edu/oop/gbrowser.php?file=/classsource/class3/Scope.cs Scope.cs]<br />
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
==Additional Reading==
 +
 
 +
*http://www.csharp-station.com/Tutorials/Lesson03.aspx
 +
*http://www.csharp-station.com/Tutorials/Lesson04.aspx
 +
 
 +
==Structs==
 +
 
 +
Lightweight alternatives to classes. Structs do not support inheritance or destructors. Don't worry if you don't understand structs yet it hard cuz the book teaches them before classes. We will talk more about stucts after we talk about classes
 +
Syntax
 +
 
 +
[ attributes] [access-modifiers] struct identifier
 +
[:interface-list {struct members}
 +
 
 +
<syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">struct Dog
 +
{
 +
public string name;
 +
public string weight;
 +
public int age;
 +
}</syntaxhighlight>
 +
 
 +
==Enumerators==
 +
 
 +
Enumerators are used to set predefined list of named constants.
 +
Syntax
 +
 
 +
[ attributes] [modifiers] enum identifier
 +
[:base-type {enumerator-list};
 +
 
 +
<syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">//An enumerator for ServingSizes at BK
 +
enum ServingSizes : uint
 +
{
 +
  Small = 0,
 +
  Regular = 1,
 +
  Large = 2,
 +
  SuperSize = 3
 +
}</syntaxhighlight>
 +
 
 +
<syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">//another more useful example
 +
// forced sequence to start 
 +
// from 1 instead of 0 (default)
 +
enum Months
 +
  {
 +
    January = 1, February , March, April ,
 +
    May , June , July , August , Sept , Oct , Nov , Dec
 +
  }</syntaxhighlight>
 +
 
 +
Enumerator Example [http://iam.colum.edu/Poop/gbrowser.php?file=/classsource/class2/Enum.cs Enum.cs]
 +
 
 +
==Home work==
 +
 +
2. Read Chapter 6,7 in Learning c#
 +
 
 +
*Create a console Game of Chance 2 pts
 +
**A coinflipper
 +
**A dice roller
 +
**Guess My Number
 +
 
 +
The game should contain some level of randomness.
 +
It should also demonstrate operators and branching statements. It would sure be nice if the game had some level input from the user.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
Here is an example coin flipper worth 2 pts
 +
[http://iam.colum.edu/oop/gbrowser.php?file=/classsource/class3/CoinFilpperSimple.cs CoinFilpperSimple.cs]
 +
 
 +
This game flips a whole bunch of coins two and compares the results. If the two coins are the same then you are a winner and it displays true. If they are different then you loose and if displays false.
 +
This program was created to test the old question 'If you flip a coins 99 times and get 99 head what are the odds of the 100th flip turning up heads?'
 +
 
 +
It shows some strange properties of randomness.
  
Global variables are variables that are around for the entire length of execution. They are declared a public within the programs base class.
+
[http://iam.colum.edu/oop/gbrowser.php?file=/classsource/class3/CoinFilpperFunner.cs CoinFilpperFunner.cs]
Block Level Variables
 
  
Block level variables exitist with the code block.
+
This is the end of the intro review...

Latest revision as of 16:37, 10 June 2019


Conversion Casting

Casting is the process of converting form one type of object to another, There are two Conversion types in C# implicit and explicit. Implicit conversion is handled by the compiler and requires no extra work. Implicit conversion is only possible if the new data type can hold the old data type with out any data loss. explicit conversion forces on datatype into another even if it doesn't fit. It is up to the programmer to define explicit casts.

implicit conversion

int intNumber = 1000;
long lngNumber;
lngNumber  = intNumber;
         
int Number1= 6;
int Number2= 5;
int Number3 = Number1 / Number2;
//Number3 == 1	NOT  1.2 because Number3 is an int

implicitConversion.cs

explicit conversion

long lngNumber = 1000;
int intNumber;
intNumber = (int)lngNumber;

int Number1= 6;
int Number2= 5;
double Number3 = (double)Number1 / (double)Number2;
//Number3 == 1.2

explicitConversion.cs

Some types cannot be cast from one type to another but the Framework has it's ows Conversion Class. Convert

ConvertClass.cs and Emample of using the convert class to convert an interger to a boolean

Operators

ECMA-334 Operators and punctuators


Assignment

The Assigment operator in c# is the '=' sign. You can assign variables like this...

int myVar; //declare varible of type int called myVar
myVar = 15;   //assign myVar the value of 15 using the '=' sign

Comparison Operators

Operator Description
== Equality
< Less Than
<= Less than or equal to
> Greater than
>= Greater than or equal to
!= Inequality

Logical Operators

Operator Description
&& Logical AND
II Logical OR (note the II are really pipes)
! Logical NOT

Boolean Expressions

Logical operators usually work on bollean expressions. Boolean expressions are is a statement that evaluates to true of false

(1 < 2)
or
(y == x)

Boolean expressions are often grouped with logical operator to combine comparisons

(x > 0) && (x <100) //x is greater than 0 and less than 100
(x < 0) || (x >100) //x is less than zero or x is greater than 100

Logical operator Precedence

  1.  ! (NOT)
  2. && (AND)
  3. || (OR)

Branching

evil goto - I won't show it figure it out on your own...

  • if
  • switch

Looping

  • for
  • while
  • do... while
  • foreach

Branching Statements

if

syntax

if (expression)
    // statement
    
if (expression) {
    // statements
    // statements
}
if (expression) {
    // statements
    // statements
}
else {
    // statements
}


About braces and indenting. I usually use BSD/Allman Style.
Jargon File
indent style n.
The One True Brace Style

  Console Input
  There are several ways to get data into your program. One of the simplest is to have someone type it into the console.
  The frame work supports Console.ReadLine() this method reads on line from the input of the console.
EchoOnce.cs
Another popular way to get data into your program is to send it in as an argument when the program is run.
HelloName.cs
HelloNameSafe.cs

if example IfSelection.cs - source

The following code uses a bunch of operator and if statements to do some basic sanity checks. Analyze it and try to predict the output
sanityCheck.cs - source

switch

syntax

switch (expression)

{
   case constant-expression:
           statement
           jump-statement
   [default: statement]
}

example 1

// switch with integer type
switch (myInt)
{
    case 1:
            Console.WriteLine("Your number is {0}.", myInt);
            break;
    case 2:
            Console.WriteLine("Your number is {0}.", myInt);
            break;
    case 3:
            Console.WriteLine("Your number is {0}.", myInt);
            break;
    default:
            Console.WriteLine("Your number {0} is not between 1 and 3.", myInt);
            break;
}

Switch1to3.cs
Switch1to3WithTryAndCatch.cs

fall though and goto case

// fall though and goto case
switch (myChoice)
{
    case "NewLeft":
            Console.WriteLine("Newleft is voting Democratic.");
            goto case "Democrat";
    case "Democrat":
            Console.WriteLine("You voted Democratic.");
            break;
    case "CompassionateRepublican":
    case "Republican":
            Console.WriteLine("You voted Republican.");
            break;
    default:
            Console.WriteLine("Please vote....");
            break;
}

SwitchPolitics.cs

Looping Statements

for

syntax

    for ([initializers]; [expression]; [iterators]) statement
    
for (int i=0; i < 10; i++)
{
    forOneResult += "For Loop " + i + "<br />";
}

Produces

For Loop 0
For Loop 1
For Loop 2
For Loop 3
For Loop 4
For Loop 5
For Loop 6
For Loop 7
For Loop 8
For Loop 9
for (int i=0; i < 20; i++)
{
    if (i == 10)
            break;

    if (i % 2 == 0)
            continue;

    forTwoResult += "For Loop " + i + "<br />";
}

Produces

For Loop 1
For Loop 3
For Loop 5
For Loop 7
For Loop 9

For loops can also be good to dynamically add or alter the contents or web controls. For example If I wanted a web control to have 100 items in it like this . I could use a for loop to add them here's an example

/infod/jeff/classSource/class3/DynamicAddDropdown.aspx - source

while

while syntax

  while (expression) statement
string whileLoopResult = "";
int MyInt = 0;

while (MyInt < 10)
{
    Whileloopresult +="While Loop " + MyInt + "\n";
    MyInt++;
}

produces

While Loop 0
While Loop 1
While Loop 2
While Loop 3
While Loop 4
While Loop 5
While Loop 6
While Loop 7
While Loop 8
While Loop 9

do

do... while syntax

   do statement while (boolean-expression);
   
string doLoopResult = "";
int myIntDo = 0;

do
{
    doLoopResult +="do Loop " + myIntDo + "\n";
    myIntDo++;
}       while (myIntDo < 10);

produces

do Loop 0
do Loop 1
do Loop 2
do Loop 3
do Loop 4
do Loop 5
do Loop 6
do Loop 7
do Loop 8
do Loop 9


string doLoopResult2 = "";
int myIntDo2 = 30;

do
{
        doLoopResult2 +="do Loop " + myInt + "\n";
        myIntDo2++;
}	while (myIntDo2 < 10);

produces do Loop 30

for each

A for each loop requires and iterator.. more on this iterator thing later...

string[] names = {"Cheryl", "Joe", "Matt", "Robert"};
foreach (string person in names)
{
    Console.Write (" " + person);
}

produces

 Cheryl Joe Matt Robert

ForEachLoop.cs - source

The for each loop is a key component in polymorphism. Remember the age selector example what if we want to select more than one age. It would be simple to change the dropdownlist into a listbox and turn SelectionMode ="Multiple" so the user can select multiple items but how do check to see if every Item is selected. Is to have each item check itself and use a for each loop.

Generics

  • List
  • Queue
  • Stack
  • .etc

IN Class

Build a c# app that writes the words to 99 bottles of beer on the wall using a loopin statement

99 bottles of beer csharp example

Try and Catch

Try and catch is useful when you are going to do something that may cause a runtime error. These arrroe my occur when

  • Parsing user input
  • Converting Datatypes
  • Trying to connect to a remote server
  • Connecting to a database

For example consider a program that asks the user what their favorite number is.

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Text;

namespace FavoriteNumber
{
    class Program
    {
        static void Main(string[] args)
        {
            int intFavNumber;
            string strFavNumber;
            
            Console.Write("What is you favorite number?");
            strFavNumber = Console.ReadLine();

            intFavNumber = Int16.Parse(strFavNumber);

        }
    }
}

if you type 'monkey' for your favorite number the program crashes with the folling message


Unhandled Exception: System.FormatException: Input string was not in a correct format.
   at System.Number.StringToNumber(String str, NumberStyles options, NumberBuffer& number, NumberFormatInfo info, Boolea
n parseDecimal)
   at System.Number.ParseInt32(String s, NumberStyles style, NumberFormatInfo info)
   at System.Int16.Parse(String s, NumberStyles style, NumberFormatInfo info)
   at FavoriteNumber.Program.Main(String[] args)

This program can be fixed be using a try and catch

try
{
	//some crazy code that may cause errors
}
catch (Exception e)
{
    string FstrError = e.ToString();
}


Console Example http://iam.colum.edu/oop/gbrowser.php?file=/classsource/class3/try.cs

using System;
namespace HelloClass
{
    class HelloWorld
    {
        public static void Main()
        {
            object o2 = null;
            try
            {
                int i2 = (int) o2;   // Error
            }
            catch (Exception e)
            {
                //put Exceptioninto string strError
                string strError = e.ToString();
                //write error to label lblOutput
                Console.WriteLine(strError);
            }
        }
    }
}
C:\User\csharp>csc try.cs
Microsoft (R) Visual C# .NET Compiler version 7.10.3052.4
for Microsoft (R) .NET Framework version 1.1.4322
Copyright (C) Microsoft Corporation 2001-2002. All rights reserved.


C:\User\csharp>try.exe
System.NullReferenceException: Object reference not set to an instance of an obj
ect.
   at HelloClass.HelloWorld.Main()

C:\User\csharp>

/infod/jeff/classSource/class2/try.cs - source

String Functions in csharp

To Upper method returns a string that only has upper case letters

string strName = "jeff";
Console.WriteLine(strName.ToUpper());

will write JEFF

string strName = "Jeff";
Console.WriteLine(strName.ToLower());

will write jeff

string strName = "jMeyers";
string strNamej = "john jacob jingleheimer Schmidt";

strName = strName .Replace("j" , "J");
strNamej =  strNamej.Replace("j" , "J");

strName will be "JMeyers" strName will be "John Jacob Jingleheimer Schmidt"


etc

Make Our Own String function

protected static void WriteColorFull(string s)
        {
            //Save current console color so we can restore it when we are done
            //We don't want to leave the console with a random color
            ConsoleColor originalConsoleColor = Console.ForegroundColor;

            for (int index = 0; index < s.Length; index++)
            {

                Console.ForegroundColor = mycolors[(mycolors.Length + index) % mycolors.Length];   //Rotate through colors
                Console.Write(s[index]);    //Write the current letter from the string

            }
            Console.Write("\n");

            //Restore Console
            Console.ForegroundColor = originalConsoleColor;

        }

        //An array of console colors
        private static ConsoleColor[] mycolors =
        {
            ConsoleColor.Red,
            ConsoleColor.Magenta,
            ConsoleColor.DarkMagenta,
            ConsoleColor.DarkGreen,
            ConsoleColor.DarkRed,
            ConsoleColor.DarkGray,
            ConsoleColor.DarkBlue,
            ConsoleColor.Blue,
            ConsoleColor.Gray,
            ConsoleColor.Green,
            ConsoleColor.Yellow,
            ConsoleColor.White
        };

Functions/Methods

Function help with code reuse. If your going to use it more than once make it into a funtions. syntax simple

[access-modifier] return type indentifier ( [parateters] ) {

   //some code

}

access-modifiers
public
private
protected
internal
protected internal
more on these next week.

Defining

string Hello ()
{
    return "Hello ";
}

string HelloToName (string Name)
{
    return "Hello " + Name;
}

Calling a finction in c#

string firstHello, jeffHello;   //declare some strings
firstHello = Hello();   //call the function Hello
jeffHello = HelloToName("Jeff");   //call the function HelloToName

Console Example /infod/jeff/classSource/class3/function.cs - source

C:\User\csharp>csc function.cs
Microsoft (R) Visual C# .NET Compiler version 7.10.3052.4
for Microsoft (R) .NET Framework version 1.1.4322
Copyright (C) Microsoft Corporation 2001-2002. All rights reserved.


C:\User\csharp>function.cs

C:\User\csharp>function.exe
Hello World!
Hello
Hello Jeff
Hello Marge

C:\User\csharp>

function.cs

Passing variable into a function/method passes be instance. Variables passed by instance do not actually pass in the original variable rather a copy or new instance of the variable is passed. It you want to pass in the actual variable you need to pass be referance Examples of passesing by instamce and passing by refecnce... /infod/jeff/classSource/class3/instanceReference.aspx - Source

Variables

Scope

scope defines the life of a variable. Local Variables

Variables declared with functions/methods are only around as long as the function/method is running. These variables are known as local varables

Global Variables

Global variables are variables that are around for the entire length of execution. They are declared a public within the programs base class.
In c# since everything must be contianed in a class global variables do not really exist.

Block Level Variables

Block level variables exitist with the code block.
A code block is contained by { }.

Scope.cs



Additional Reading

Structs

Lightweight alternatives to classes. Structs do not support inheritance or destructors. Don't worry if you don't understand structs yet it hard cuz the book teaches them before classes. We will talk more about stucts after we talk about classes Syntax

[ attributes] [access-modifiers] struct identifier [:interface-list {struct members}

struct Dog
{
 public string name;
 public string weight;
 public int age;
}

Enumerators

Enumerators are used to set predefined list of named constants. Syntax

[ attributes] [modifiers] enum identifier [:base-type {enumerator-list};

//An enumerator for ServingSizes at BK
enum ServingSizes : uint
{
  Small = 0,
  Regular = 1,
  Large = 2,
  SuperSize = 3
}
//another more useful example
// forced sequence to start  
// from 1 instead of 0 (default)
enum Months 
  {
    January = 1, February , March, April ,
    May , June , July , August , Sept , Oct , Nov , Dec 
  }

Enumerator Example Enum.cs

Home work

2. Read Chapter 6,7 in Learning c#

  • Create a console Game of Chance 2 pts
    • A coinflipper
    • A dice roller
    • Guess My Number

The game should contain some level of randomness. It should also demonstrate operators and branching statements. It would sure be nice if the game had some level input from the user.


Here is an example coin flipper worth 2 pts CoinFilpperSimple.cs

This game flips a whole bunch of coins two and compares the results. If the two coins are the same then you are a winner and it displays true. If they are different then you loose and if displays false. This program was created to test the old question 'If you flip a coins 99 times and get 99 head what are the odds of the 100th flip turning up heads?'

It shows some strange properties of randomness.

CoinFilpperFunner.cs

This is the end of the intro review...