Sound for Interaction class 9

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  • Audio Effects Presentations
  • Intro to digital theory

Digital Theory

Word of the Day Analog How stuff works - How Analog and Digital Recording Works

Analog vs. Digital the arguments in a nutshell

Analog Digital Good
Infinite dynamic quantization (infinite resolution) Quantization error fix - more bit depth/oversampling
Good? - The warming effects 'we're used' to from tape compression. Good?-'Perfect' reproduction of high frequencies - 'soundz harsh fix - 'using warm-sounding mikes and preamps (tubes)'
Bad - Tape noise and generation loss Good - 'no generation loss'
Bad - 'Cheap recordings sound cheap' Good - 'cheap recordings sound good but digital'

* 'anything in quotes is what I like to call an opinion


Other Opinions

analog winner http://www.segall.com/atr.html

analog winner http://www.digido.com/analog_versus_digital.html

comparison http://www.outersound.com/osu/recording/

ana-dig.html Number Systems

Hexadecimal Base 16 Decimal Base 10 Octal Base 8 Binary Base 2
0 0 0 0000
1 1 1 0001
2 2 2 0010
3 3 3 0011
4 4 4 0100
5 5 5 0101
6 6 6 0110
7 7 7 0111
8 8 10 1000
9 9 11 1001
A 10 12 1010
B 11 13 1011
C 12 14 1100
D 13 15 1101
E 14 16 1110
F 15 17 1111

Binary Numbers

As Humans we use a 10 base numbering system. For machines this numbering system is impractical.

Gottfried Willheml von Leibnitz devised the binary number system in 1679

Converting Binary Numbers

Binary->Decimal

   110102 = (1 * 24) + (1 * 23) + (0 * 22) + (1 * 21) + (0 * 20) = 1610 + 810 +  0 + 210 + 0 = 2610

Dividing by two

integer remainder binary #
26
26/2 0 0
13/2 1 1 0
6/2 0 0 1 0
3/2 1 1 0 1 0
1/2 1 1 1 0 1 0
0/2 that's it kids

for more info see Dr. Dave's Class readings (i believe it's in week 2)Daves text

Base2


Each new bit doubles the number of intervals.


20 =1 monochrome, often black and white
21 =2
22 =4
23 =8 Most early color Unix workstations, VGA at low resolution, Super VGA, AGA http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_colors#Web-safe_colors
24 =16
25 =32
26 =64
27 =128
28 =256
29 =512
210 =1024
2 11 =2048
212 =4096
213 =8192
214 =16384
215 =32768
216 =65536 "thousands of colors" on Macintosh
220 =1048576
224 =16777216 Truecolor or "millions of colors" on Macintosh systems
232 = 4,294,967,295 refers to 24-bit color (Truecolor) with an additional 8 bits
264 = 18,446,744,073,709,551,616 = 16 exabytes. That's more than 18 billion billion bytes.

Large Bit Names

Name Abbr. Size
Kilo K 2^10 = 1,024
Mega M 2^20 = 1,048,576
Giga G 2^30 = 1,073,741,824
Tera T 2^40 = 1,099,511,627,776
Peta P 2^50 = 1,125,899,906,842,624
Exa E 2^60 = 1,152,921,504,606,846,976
Zetta Z 2^70 = 1,180,591,620,717,411,303,424
Yotta Y 2^80 = 1,208,925,819,614,629,174,706,176


Color Depth

1 Bit
2 Bit
4 Bit
8 Bit
16 Bit
32 Bit


Bit Depth Color Examples

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Color_depth

HomeWork

Finish Sound for Interaction Voice Recording